Harald Hardrada: King of Norway What was Harald Hardrada famous for? Was Harald Hardrada a good king? How did Harald Hardrada die in the battle of Hastings? Who defeated King Harold of Norway?

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 On the 20th of September 1066 a battle was fought on the outskirts of the village of Fulford in northern England the English Earl's edwin of Mercia and Morcar of Northumbria had hastily gathered their forces together along with the local Lords of the north to mount a defense against this last great Viking invasion of England these were no mere raiders facing them across the fields to the combined might of the kingdom of Norway along with its allies and the Scottish Isles and also the recently deposed English Earl of Northumbria the brother of the new king kostik Godwinson the English struck first advancing on the Norwegians before they could fully deploy but this wasn't the Norwegian Kings first battle  He was Harald Hardrada the famous Viking who had spent his entire lifetime adventuring and battling all over the known world from modern-day Palestine to Italy to Russia to Ukraine he had carved out a fortune from the blood of his enemies and fought against far greater men than

How did the Muslims conquer Egypt?Arab History - about the Arab Caliphates[part 01]

 Beginning in 639 the foggy fates of egypt shifted into the hands of the muslim rashidan caliphate

 Who stripped the land from the powerful byzantine empire in their ever-growing mission of expansion the path of conquering began back during the life of the prophet muhammad himself and was now steaming forward through the middle east with no hesitation as of 639 egypt had only been in the hands of the byzantine empire for a short decade :


Previously the territory had been seized and occupied by the persian sassanid empire back in 618 and was only just reconquered under byzantine emperor heraclius after their egyptian possession though the byzantines began to lose the levant during the same decade as the rashidun caliphate wasted no time on their conquests by december of 639 rationing commander amir ibn alas marched at the head of a 4 000 strong army towards the egyptian border with only one goal to conquer as the troops made their way closer and closer to their target caliph umar became increasingly concerned about the odds of his men being able to take such a vast amount of land from the byzantines with such a small army unwilling to take the risk anymore umar had a letter sent to amar instructing him to return home with his army immediately the message was given to ukba to deliver and made its way to the commander at rafael unwilling to back down and fairly certain about what would be in the letter amar ordered his men to speed up and told the messenger that he would open the letter when the men stopped at the end of the day ukba was completely ignorant of the contents of his message and easily agreed to follow alongside the army until their day's travel was done amar then ensured they did not stop until they were within the egyptian border finally halting just outside the city of el-arish'''

 The commander finally agreed to open the caliph's letter and informed his troops of the contents asking for their thoughts on what they should do next as he had anticipated and strategically aimed for the men all agreed that since they were already within the egyptian border there was no reason to turn back now amor then sent word back to the caliph and continued forward into el-arish on aid al-adha and passed through with no resistance from the locals the rashiduns eventually reached palestine near either the end of december or early january 640. 


 Two-month siege began with the rashiduns determined to break down what was known as the eastern gateway to egypt during the siege a large number of sinai bedouins also decided to join the rashidun cause helping to offset any casualties accumulated by the muslim side the attack dragged on until huzaifah ivanwala assault group that was finally able to capture the pollution fortress and city after the strong victory there ammer led his forces toward belbice for their next siege unlike at palestine the byzantines here put up a significant fight against the invading arabs cyrus the governor of egypt and patriarch of alexandria even attempted to negotiate a deal with the muslims in order to solve the dispute more peacefully amur agreed to negotiate cyrus was then joined by two monks and aresian a famous roman general from jerusalem the talks resulted in a murder demanding that the byzantines convert to islam and pay a jizya yearly tax or he would continue the siege cyrus first asked for three days to consider the deal then requested an extension for two more days after which he had decided it would be best to surrender unwilling to support the governor's decision arishian and the monks announced their refusal to agree to a mers deal and kicked off the battle once again the byzantines were shortly defeated and general arishan was killed during the end conflicts the rationans attempted to win over the local egyptian population following their victory over the byzantine forces but the egyptians refused to hand over the city the muslims were forced to continue their siege yet again until they were finally able to capture bellevice in march of 640.


 Next the arab commander set his sights on babylon during the previous battle when cyrus had been betrayed by his men who refused to surrender he had fled back to his palace in babylon where the muslims were now looking to annex only two months later this time though amir and his men were incredibly outnumbered and babylon was a highly fortified city with a gigantic fort standing at roughly 18 meters high and over two meters thick the byzantines were now prepared for a siege and began to push off any attempts made by the arabs to drive forward and break down the fort by july amur recognized that the battle was at a standstill for his side and sent a message to caliph umar for reinforcements which the caliph had thankfully already sent out by the time the letter arrived four thousand new men many having fought successfully during the syrian campaign and commanded by zubair ibn al-awam who was once part of the famed khalid ibn walid's elite mobile guard arrived in babylon to assist the siege but still the arabs were struggling to make any progress against the romans contrarily in july the muslims did find success at the battle of heliopolis which stood about 10 miles from babylon fearing,

 That the byzantine troops from heliopolis could attack their men while they were preoccupied in babylon amar and zubair decided to proactively attack the unexpecting city temporarily shifting focus from their main target an initial cavalry scuffle proved only partially successful as the rashidun men were able to capture a fortress in modern day cairo keeping the momentum going zubair took a handful of his men to the walls of heliopolis where they scaled the fortifications and clashed with the guards the muslim forces eventually claimed victory and opened the city gates for the rest of their men to enter after fully securing heliopolis the arab commanders turned back to babylon so they could finish the ongoing siege once and for all a mere month later the caliph sent another four thousand strong reinforcement the four thousand men were split into four columns '

When they arrived at babylon in september the rashidun forces in total now numbered twelve thousand and the battle began to intensify meanwhile the byzantines of feyum got word of the ratchet and victory at the battle of heliopolis and abruptly abandoned their posts providing no warning to the citizens as to what they were doing and affording amur the opportunity of sending some of his troops across the nile to capture both the cities of feyum and abwet which the byzantines had also fled the muslims occupied the cities with no difficulty allowing for no distraction from the siege back in babylon where a new strategy had been taken up the byzantines had begun to push forward toward the rationans taking a more offensive approach which proved to be a severe mistake during one of these assaults the muslim troops encircled the byzantines and struck back from three flanks causing serious damage and casualties and forcing the byzantines to retreat back to their fort and forego further offensive action the siege now moved into negotiations with cyrus of alexandria once again and amer personally met with the byzantine general theodorus negotiations made no valid progress and the arabs grew tired of how long the siege was dragging on finally on december 20th under the cover of night zubair led a hand-picked group of troops straight to the city walls just as he had done in heliopolis and proceeded to follow the same plan as before by no surprise zubair was able to scale the walls with his men overpower the guards and open the city gates for the rest of the rashidun army two days later cyrus recognized'


 That there was little left for him to do and agreed to a peace deal with the muslims that would surrender all of egypt to caliph umar cyrus assured amaran zubair that if the byzantine emperor heraklius refused to ratify the treaty he himself would uphold the deal as would all of the coptic locals who were under his authority as high priest of the coptic church as was expected heraclius immediately refused to ratify the treaty and strip cyrus of his viceroy ship as punishment for such a preposterous proposal the emperor then ordered his commander-in-chief to rid egypt of the muslims promptly cyrus then informed amir of the new developments and once again promised his loyalty under the terms that the rationans honor their side of the agreement with him and the cops and that if the byzantines attempt to make peace after conflict the muslims must refuse and instead take the men as prisoners the rationans now turned to the city of alexandria where they wish to end any roman attempts to drive them out of egypt the byzantines attempted to push the muslims back on their way to alexandria but they were slowly forced further and further towards the city by march of 641 the battle reached alexandria and the conflict remained an intense back and forth until another rationing commander ubaidah finally launched a successful incursion leading to the seizure of the city once and for all cyrus subsequently sued for peace on behalf of the egyptian people and the muslims agreed without delay having finally pried egypt from the byzantine grasp the rashiduns would continue on their conquest further into north africa becoming a quickly rising power that was nowhere near done threatening the strength of byzantium and anyone else in their way you ,,,,,,...

Hello iam Tara from pakistan iam student of history iam studying in  Excellence collage pakistan 


Today we are discussing in the class about arab history ,, sir said we will be discussing arab history in 6 or 7 parts ,,its first part ,me share with u inshallah 6 part time by time,,,,,,, 

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