Harald Hardrada: King of Norway What was Harald Hardrada famous for? Was Harald Hardrada a good king? How did Harald Hardrada die in the battle of Hastings? Who defeated King Harold of Norway?

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 On the 20th of September 1066 a battle was fought on the outskirts of the village of Fulford in northern England the English Earl's edwin of Mercia and Morcar of Northumbria had hastily gathered their forces together along with the local Lords of the north to mount a defense against this last great Viking invasion of England these were no mere raiders facing them across the fields to the combined might of the kingdom of Norway along with its allies and the Scottish Isles and also the recently deposed English Earl of Northumbria the brother of the new king kostik Godwinson the English struck first advancing on the Norwegians before they could fully deploy but this wasn't the Norwegian Kings first battle  He was Harald Hardrada the famous Viking who had spent his entire lifetime adventuring and battling all over the known world from modern-day Palestine to Italy to Russia to Ukraine he had carved out a fortune from the blood of his enemies and fought against far greater men than

The History of the Ottoman Empire - 1299 - 1922 What is the Ottoman Empire known for? Why did the Ottoman Empire collapse? Which country ruled the Ottoman Empire? What are 5 facts about the Ottoman Empire?



 The ottoman empire was one of the world's longest lasting and most dominant empires throughout history known also as the turkish empire the ottoman power was a state that controlled territories spanning across europe asia and africa for over 600 years in their first 100 years due to their impressive abilities to take advantage of their weaker neighbors and due to the massive mistakes made by kingdoms of the balkans and other christian powers including the byzantine empire the ottomans will rise from a small bailic to a regional power and they will use this position as a stepping stone to expand even more the conquering force began around the year 1299 when osman the first a muslim leader from the town of sogut anatolia styled himself as supreme leader or sultan following a string of raids led by osman and his ghazi troops against their byzantine opposition

 The name of the empire ottoman is derived from the name of its first leader and founder osman whose name was actually uthman in arabic left behind a scarce amount of information about his life but gave the world an empire in his name consequently due to the lack of reliable contemporary sources about the muslim leader current historians struggle to determine what tales have been fabricated over the years and which ones are in fact true according to ottoman lore osmond the first was the son of urtigral and grandson of sulaiman shah both of whom were from the k tribe of oghs turks although the latter connection has been debated by ottoman genealogists nonetheless osman the first was the man responsible for creating the first foundations of the 600-year running empire taking advantage of the disintegration seljuk dynasty in iran and mesopotamia which was vanquished in 1293 osman began expanding his territory through anatolia as the chief rival to the byzantine christians by the start of the 14th century the newly founded ottoman empire began to spread bi-directionally approaching the sea of marmara and along the sikaria river unfortunately for the eager conquerors their siege equipment was insufficient making it momentarily impossible for them to capture some of the bigger byzantine cities and territories such as constantinople it wasn't until 1326 that the ottomans were able to capture the city of bursa which would later be styled their new capital in 1335.



 Around the time of this victory the first sultan osman the first passed away leaving his son orham as the second sultan of the ottoman empire under orhan's reign the turks were now able to start strengthening their power and authority after seizing bursa where the tome of osman the first still remains as part of his military bolstering orhan went to his brother elaiden for advice aladin suggested that orhan create an army of men who were paid and trained infantrymen this is opposed to the method of the predecessor's armies which were made up of contingents and volunteers who only came together for the campaign or battle at hand orhan enacted this new strategy but quickly became dissatisfied and decided to look to a relative through marriage khandari kara halil for new guidance condarli came up with the idea for what later would be known as the janissaries the body of troops was to be made up of children from christian families in territories that had been conquered by the ottomans which would be converted to islam and trained as elite infantrymen and slaves to the sultan making up the first modern standing army in europe the janissaries were known for their extreme loyalty to the sultan ensured by strict policies and rules applied to them throughout their service such as the outlaw of marriage while the janissary troops weren't considered to have truly been established until the rule of murad the first the introductory steps were made during orhan's time of consolidation also on the mind of the second sultan was expansion.


 This became a heavier focus in 1331 with the capture of iznik following a few years later by the seizure of ismet in 1337 and then the taking of uskadar,

In 1338 only seven years after the latest of those successes orhan was then able to occupy the principality of karasi around which time he also became an ally to john vi cantacinus the later byzantine emperor through this new union orhan was additionally able to gain permission to raid the region of thrace a goal of the ottomans of course being to capture this area and marry the daughter of kanta gazenas theodora furthermore under the command of suleiman pasha one of orhan's sons the ottomans spread their control to gallipoli




 In 1354 despite kantikazennis's attempts to peacefully remove them in response to byzantine fears the raids throughout gallipoli had also brought in remarkable rewards and treasures to the ottomans which attracted the attention of thousands of turks around anatolia who wished to join the empire's forces orhan refused to give up this new territory that he claimed was gifted to him by Allah causing

 Considerable backlash for the now emperor kantikazennis which unintentionally helped lead to his downfall and turmoil within byzantium things within the ottoman world also began to shift in 1362 following the death of sultan orhan who was roughly 80 years old at the time his son sulaiman had died

 A few years prior in a hunting accident and it is believed that the toll of this loss may have led to orhan's sudden demise regardless murad the first another son of orhan was next in line to become the empire's third sultan which he did with a dramatic entrance wasting no time after taking the reigns murad continued the work of conquering thrace by seizing adrian opal and making it the new capital of the ottoman empire even with the confidence shown by this swift action taken at the command of the new ruler the ottomans continued to avoid an attempt at capturing constantinople due to their sustained lack of proper siege equipment and the sturdiness of the city's thick outer walls opting to stay with a better path for success murad kept his focus on easier expansion with more promising results over the next decade the ottomans captured more and more territories throughout the balkans even gaining some of their new control with little resistance after the battle of maritza in which they defeated their christian rivals near tournament on the maritza river even going as far as capturing macedonia murad the first was now readily broadening and strengthening the ottoman power across the balkan region by 1382 the eager sultan began to put pressure on bulgaria first convincing emperor ivan shishman to surrender his country as a vassal becoming part of a new policy enacted by murad in europe.

 Where the native rulers of existing principalities would remain in their place if they accepted the sovereignty of the sultan accompanied by the provision of contingents for the ottoman army seemingly not giving importance to this agreement murad and his troops then continued pushing on to seize sophia parrot and niss these decisive actions led to the next major victory for the empire allowing them to conquer serbia after the famed battle of kosovo/


 In 1389 while both armies were severely deteriorated and the leaders on either side were killed during the conflict the ottomans still had more troops elsewhere who could be called upon and were granted overall victory as the domino effect of acquiring serbian principality ensuing the death of sultan morad the first now under the reigns of baizid.

 The first one of his sons the ottomans were forced to return to anatolia and deal with the repercussions of their calamitous victory efforts on top of restoration duties bazid was also suddenly faced with an increasing threat from the principality of karma murad had previously taken some minor steps to avoid the new power which was built atop the remains of the fallen seljuk dynasty from attempting to take his newly seized territories but that was about all the attention he'd given it bazid was unable to ignore the rising concern by this point with caramen moving to the forefront of ottoman focus after the capture of territory and gurmeon in an attempt to keep his turkish followers from siding with the potential rivals bazid chose to make peace with caramen before moving on to capture bulgaria and finally venture the daunting task of laying siege to constantinople in response to the latter act the christians undertook a crusade with the goal of defeating the invading ottoman forces this resulted in the battle of necopolis in 1396 which was won by bayezid and his troops massacring the crusader army that was made up of hungarians germans french and other christian allies presumably feeling confident after the success at necopolis bazid and his men returned to annex carmen in 1397 despite the previously agreed on peace treaty the sultan's reach now spanned across the balkans and into asia making him one of the most powerful muslim leaders at the time his goal seemed to be that of his predecessors and future successors expand while there is relatively very little information dating back to the first 100 years of ottoman power we do know that the period of time from 1300 through 1400 served as a springboard for the empire's growth and prosperity that was to come,,......

The start of the 15th century in the ottoman empire marked the final years of bayezid the first reign as sultan in 1400 major tensions began to rise between the ottoman leader and the turco mongol warlord by the name of timur this once cold war reached a heated climax in 1402 at the battle of ankara while on hisway back through Anatolia to confront the threat of his powerful rival bayezid was caught off guard by Tamburlaine and his troops as they enclosed town of Turkish capital withholding the sole supply of water for the ottoman troops and forcing them to have interaction in battle by the tip of the conflict timur's army prevailed whereas baezid and his sons musa and mustafa chaleby were captured by timur though the rest were successful in their getaway musou was released in 1403 and mustafa was held in samarkand until the death of tamur in 1405.

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